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Sanskrit pronouns are declined for case, number, and gender. The pronominal declension applies to a few adjectives as well.

Many pronouns have alternative enclitic forms.

First and Second PersonsEdit

The first and second person pronouns are declined for the most part alike, having by analogy assimilated themselves with one another.

Note: Where two forms are given, the second is enclitic and an alternative form. Ablatives in singular and plural may be extended by the syllable -tas; thus mat or mattas, asmat or asmattas.

First Person Second Person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative aham āvām vayam tvam yuvām yūyam
Accusative mām, mā āvām, nau asmān, nas tvām, tvā yuvām, vām yuṣmān, vas
Instrumental mayā āvābhyām asmābhis tvayā yuvābhyām yuṣmābhis
Dative mahyam, me āvābhyām, nau asmabhyam, nas tubhyam, te yuvābhyām, vām yuṣmabhyam, vas
Ablative mat āvābhyām asmat tvat yuvābhyām yuṣmat
Genitive mama, me āvayos, nau asmākam, nas tava, te yuvayos, vām yuṣmākam, vas
Locative mayi āvayos asmāsu tvayi yuvayos yuṣmāsu

Third Person Pronouns and DemonstrativesEdit

Sanskrit does not have true third person pronouns, but its demonstratives fulfil this function instead by standing independently without a modified substantive.

There are four different demonstratives in Sanskrit: tat, etat, idam, and adas. etat indicates greater proximity than tat. While idam is similar to etat, adas refers to objects that are more remote than tat.

The tat paradigm is given below.

Masculine Neuter Feminine
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative sás tāú tát tā́ni sā́ tā́s
Accusative tám tāú tā́n tát tā́ni tā́m tā́s
Instrumental téna tā́bhyām tāís téna tā́bhyām tāís táyā tā́bhyām tā́bhis
Dative tásmāi tā́bhyām tébhyas tásmāi tā́bhyām tébhyas tásyāi tā́bhyām tā́bhyas
Ablative tásmāt tā́bhyām tébhyam tásmāt tā́bhyām tébhyam tásyās tā́bhyām tā́bhyas
Genitive tásya táyos téṣām tásya táyos téṣām tásyās táyos tā́sām
Locative tásmin táyos téṣu tásmin táyos téṣu tásyām táyos tā́su

eta, is declined almost identically to ta. Its paradigm is obtained by prefixing e- to all the forms of ta. As a result of sandhi, the masculine and feminine singular forms transform into eṣas and eṣã.

The ayam paradigm is given below.

Masculine Neuter Feminine
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ayam imau ime idam ime imāni iyam ime imāḥ
Accusative imam imau imān idam ime imāni imām ime imāḥ
Instrumental anena ābhyām ebhis anena ābhyām ebhis anayā ābhyām ābhis
Dative asmāi ābhyām ebhyas asmāi ābhyām ebhyas asyāi ābhyām ābhyas
Ablative asmāt ābhyām ebhyas asmāt ābhyām ebhyas asyās ābhyām ābhyas
Genitive asya anayos eṣām asya anayos eṣām asyās anayos āsām
Locative asmin anayos eṣu asmin anayos eṣu asyām anayos āsu

The asau paradigm is given below.

Masculine Neuter Feminine
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative asau amũ amĩ adas amũ amũni asau amũ amũḥ
Accusative amum amũ amũn adas amũ amũni amũm amũ amũḥ
Instrumental amunā amũbhyām amĩbhis amunā amũbhyām amĩbhis amuyā amũbhyām amũbhis
Dative amuṣmāi amũbhyām amĩbhyas amuṣmāi amũbhyām amĩbhyas amuṣyāi amũbhyām amũbhyas
Ablative amuṣmāt amũbhyām amĩbhyas amuṣmāt amũbhyām amĩbhyas amuṣyās amũbhyām amũbhyas
Genitive amuṣya amuyos amĩṣām amuṣya amuyos amĩṣām amuṣyās amuyos amũṣām
Locative amuṣmin amuyos amĩṣu amuṣmin amuyos amĩṣu amuṣyām amuyos amũṣu

Enclitic PronounsEdit

The enclitic pronoun ena is found only in a few oblique cases and numbers.

Masculine Neuter Feminine
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Accusative enam enau enãn enat ene enãni enãm ene enãḥ
Instrumental enena enena eneyā
Genitive/Locative enayos enayos enayos

Interrogative PronounsEdit

Template:Expand-section Interrogative pronouns all begin with k-, and decline just as tat does, with the initial t- being replaced by k-. The only exception to this are the singular neuter nominative and accusative forms, which are both kim and not the expected *kat.

For example, the singular feminine genitive interrogative pronoun, "of whom?", is kasyãḥ.

Indefinite PronounsEdit

Indefinite pronouns are formed by adding the participles api, cid, or cana after the appropriate interrogative pronouns.

Relative and Correlative PronounsEdit

Template:Expand-section All relative pronouns begin with y-, and decline just as tat does. The correlative pronouns are identical to the tat series.

Pronominal DeclensionEdit

Template:Expand-section In addition to the pronouns described above, some adjectives follow the pronominal declension. Unless otherwise noted, their declension is identical to tat.

  • eka: "one", "a certain". (singular neuter nominative and accusative forms are both ekam)
  • anya: "another".
  • sarva: "all", "every". (singular neuter nominative and accusative forms are both sarvam)
  • para: "the other". (singular neuter nominative and accusative forms are both param)
  • sva: "self" (a reflexive adjective). (singular neuter nominative and accusative forms are both svam)

BibliographyEdit

  • Devavāṇīpraveśikā: An Introduction to the Sanskrit Language – Robert P. Goldman – ISBN 0-944613-40-3
  • A Sanskrit Grammar for Students – A. A. Macdonell – ISBN 81-246-0094-5

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